April 29, 2019Quiz
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and easily triggered bronchospasms. Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of 1) ___. These may occur a few times a day or a few times per week. Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise. Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors include exposure to air 2) ___ and allergens. Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and beta blockers. Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometry. Asthma is classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. It may also be classified as atopic or non-atopic, where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction. There is no 3) ___ for asthma. Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens and irritants, and by the use of inhaled corticosteroids. Long-acting beta agonists (LABA) or antileukotriene agents may be used in addition to inhaled corticosteroids if asthma symptoms remain uncontrolled. Treatment of rapidly worsening symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist such as salbutamol and corticosteroids taken by mouth. In very severe cases, intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, and hospitalization may be required.
In 2015, 358 million people globally had asthma, up from 183 million in 1990. It caused about 397,100 deaths in 2015, most of which occurred in the developing world. It often begins in 4) ___. The rates of asthma have increased significantly since the 1960s. Asthma was recognized as early as Ancient Egypt. The word asthma is from the Greek, asthma, which means panting. Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Sputum may be produced from the 5) ___ by coughing but is often hard to bring up. During recovery from an attack, it may appear pus-like due to high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils. Symptoms are usually worse at night and in the early morning or in response to exercise or cold air. Some people with asthma rarely experience symptoms, usually in response to triggers, whereas others may have marked reactivity and persistent symptoms. While asthma is a well-recognized condition, there is not one universal agreed upon definition. It is defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. The chronic inflammation is associated with airway hyper-responsiveness that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing particularly at night or in the early 6) ___. These episodes are usually associated with widespread but variable airflow obstruction within the lung that is often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment.
There is currently no precise test for the diagnosis, which is typically based on the pattern of symptoms and response to therapy over time. A diagnosis of asthma should be suspected if there is a history of recurrent wheezing, coughing or difficulty breathing and these symptoms occur or worsen due to exercise, viral infections, allergens or air pollution. Spirometry is then used to confirm the diagnosis. In children under the age of six the diagnosis is more difficult as they are too young for spirometry. A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in those with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive 7) ___ apnea. Psychological disorders are also more common, with anxiety disorders occurring in between 16-52% and mood disorders in 14-41%. However, it is not known whether asthma causes psychological problems or psychological problems lead to asthma.
Asthma is caused by a combination of complex and incompletely understood environmental and genetic interactions. These influence both its severity and its responsiveness to treatment. It is believed that the recent increased rates of asthma are due to changing epigenetics (heritable factors other than those related to the DNA sequence) and a changing living environment. Onset before age 12 is more likely due to genetic influence, while onset after age 12 is more likely due to 8) ___ influence. Many environmental factors have been associated with asthma's development and exacerbation including allergens, air pollution, and other environmental chemicals. Smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is associated with a greater risk of asthma-like symptoms. Low air quality from factors such as traffic pollution or high ozone levels has been associated with both asthma development and increased asthma severity. Over half of cases in children in the United States occur in areas with air quality below EPA standards. Low air quality is more common in low-income and minority communities.
Exposure to indoor volatile organic compounds may be a trigger for asthma; formaldehyde exposure, for example, has a positive association. Also, phthalates in certain types of PVC are associated with asthma in both children and adults. While exposure to pesticides is linked to the development of asthma, a cause and effect relationship has yet to be established. There is an association between acetaminophen (paracetamol) use and asthma. The majority of the evidence does not, however, support a causal role. A 2014 review found that the association disappeared when respiratory infections were taken into account. Use by a mother during pregnancy is also associated with an increased risk as is psychological stress during pregnancy.
Asthma is associated with exposure to indoor allergens. Common indoor allergens include dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander (fragments of fur or feathers), and mold. Efforts to decrease 9) ___ mites have been found to be ineffective on symptoms in sensitized subjects. Certain viral respiratory infections, such as respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus, may increase the risk of developing asthma when acquired as young children. Certain other infections, however, may decrease the risk. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to explain the increased rates of asthma worldwide as a direct and unintended result of reduced exposure, during childhood, to non-pathogenic bacteria and viruses. It has been proposed that the reduced exposure to bacteria and viruses is due, in part, to increased cleanliness and decreased family size in modern societies. Exposure to bacterial endotoxin in early childhood may prevent the development of asthma, but exposure at an older age may provoke bronchoconstriction. Evidence supporting the hygiene hypothesis includes lower rates of asthma on farms and in households with pets. Early pet exposure may be useful. Results from exposure to pets at other times are inconclusive and it is only recommended that pets be removed from the home if a person has allergic symptoms to said pet.
The evidence for the effectiveness of measures to prevent the development of asthma is weak. The World Health Organization recommends decreasing risk factors such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, chemical irritants including perfume, and the number of lower respiratory infections. Other efforts that show promise include: limiting smoke exposure in utero, breastfeeding, and increased exposure to daycare or large families, but none are well supported enough to be recommended for this indication. Use of antibiotics in early life has been linked to the development of asthma. Also, delivery via caesarean section is associated with an increased risk (estimated at 20-80%) of asthma - this increased risk is attributed to the lack of healthy bacterial colonization that the newborn would have acquired from passage through the birth canal. Family history is a risk factor for asthma, with many different genes being implicated.
In 2010 the death rate was 170 per million for males and 90 per million for females. Rates vary between countries by 100 fold. The prognosis for asthma is generally good, especially for children with mild disease. Mortality has 10) ___ over the last few decades due to better recognition and improvement in care.
ANSWERS: 1) breath; 2) pollution; 3) cure; 4) childhood; 5) lung; 6) morning; 7) sleep; 8) environmental; 9) dust; 10) decreased