September 18, 2017Quiz
Diabetes mellitus type 2, is also called, 1) ___-onset diabetes. Symptoms include, increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger. Complications can include, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, diabetic ketoacidosis, heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy, kidney failure. The usual age of onset is middle or older age, and the duration is usually long term. The causes are obesity, lack of exercise and genetic predisposition. 2) ___ tests determine the diagnosis. Prevention consists of, maintaining normal weight, exercising, eating properly. Treatments include, dietary changes, metformin, insulin, bariatric surgery. The prognosis is a10 year shorter life expectancy.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood 3) ___, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Symptoms may also include feeling tired, and sores that do not 4) ___. Often symptoms come on slowly. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations. Some people are more genetically at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. In diabetes mellitus type 1, there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).
Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by maintaining a normal 5) ___, exercising regularly, and eating properly. Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes. If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended. Many people may eventually also require insulin injections. In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills. Bariatric surgery often improves diabetes in those who are obese. Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with 6) ___. As of 2015, there were approximately 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Typically it begins in middle or older age, although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. Historically, diabetes was one of the first diseases described. The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.
In September 2017, researchers identified substances in coffee that could help quash the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. But few of these have been tested in animals. Now in a study appearing in the Journal of Natural Products, it was reported that one of these previously untested compounds appears to improve cell function and insulin sensitivity in laboratory 7) ___. The finding could spur the development of new drugs to treat or even prevent the disease. Some studies suggest that drinking three to four cups of 8) ___ a day can reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Initially, it was suspected that caffeine was responsible for this effect. But other findings, suggested that other substances in coffee may have had a more important role. In a previous laboratory study, it was found that a compound in coffee called cafestol, increased insulin secretion in pancreatic cells when they were exposed to 9) ___. Cafestol also increased glucose uptake in muscle cells just as effectively as a commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug. In this new study, the researchers wanted to see if cafestol would help prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes in mice. The researchers divided mice that are prone to develop Type 2 diabetes into three groups. Two of the groups were fed differing doses of cafestol. After 10 weeks, both sets of cafestol-fed mice had lower blood glucose levels and improved insulin secretory capacity compared to a control group, which was not given the compound. Cafestol also didn't result in hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, a possible side effect of some antidiabetic medications. The study conclude that daily consumption of 10) ___ can delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes in these mice, and that it is a good candidate for drug development to treat or prevent the disease in humans.
Sources: American Chemical Society; Fredrik Brustad Mellbye, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Pedram Shokouh, Christoffer Laustsen, Kjeld Hermansen, S?ren Gregersen. Cafestol, a Bioactive Substance in Coffee, Has Antidiabetic Properties in KKAy Mice. Journal of Natural Products, 2017; 80 (8): 2353 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00395
ANSWERS: 1) adult; 2) Blood; 3) sugar; 4) heal; 5) weight; 6) obesity; 7) mice; 8) coffee; 9) glucose; 10) cafestol