September 25, 2017Quiz
Editor's note: We bring you this climate change study, primarily because the increased global temperatures and flooding, of climate change also bring an increase of diseases. With warmth and many additional pools of water, disease carrying mosquitoes (as well as many other pests) will be much more abundant. Just as we were not prepared for the millions of climate change refugees from the 2017 super hurricanes, alone, we won't be ready for millions of Americans with diseases, made worse by fast-moving changes in climate.
Climate change should no longer be a blame-game. It's going to affect us all. Our home, planet Earth has become a theater of survival. This global issue requires the cooperation of every country and every world citizen, if anyone is going to survive on the world stage, now on a fast track toward flooding us out with unharnessed hurricanes, burning and smoking us out with uncontrolled forest fires, choking us out with air pollution, smothering us with life threatening rising temperatures, killing us with new and/or more virulent diseases.
We should be talking, as one planetary network, on how to collaborate with life-saving research, like sucking CO2 out of the atmosphere, NOW, and maybe shooting it off into the sun (how about shooting the trillions of tons of human plastic garbage that's polluting our oceans, into the sun), or finding a creative way to utilize the extra CO2, here on earth. We, people of the earth, need to act fast; and right now! Some scientists are saying that we might not be able to recover, to return to the life style Americans are accustomed to.
For people not aware of the disasters of climate change, it's our job to make sure they're educated. This is not a political fight, this is a human fight.
We're all in this together, folks
The East Coast of the United States is threatened by more frequent 1) ___ in the future. This is shown in a recent study by the Universities of Bonn, South Florida, and Rhode Island. According to this study, the states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina are most at risk. Their coastal regions are being immersed by up to three millimeters per year -- among other things, due to human intervention. The work is published in the journal Scientific Reports by the Nature Publishing Group. Cities such as Miami on the East Coast of the USA are being affected by flooding more and more frequently. The causes are often not hurricanes with devastating rainfall such as Katrina, or the recent 2017 hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Jose, Maria. On the contrary: flooding (especially at high 2) ___) even occurs on sunny, relatively calm days. It causes damage to houses and roads and disrupts traffic, yet does not cost any people their lives. It is thus also known as ?nuisance flooding'. During high tide in Miami, Florida, fish have been seen in the flooded streets. And this nuisance is set to occur much more frequently in the future. At least researchers from the Universities of Bonn, South Florida, and Rhode Island show this in their study. The international team evaluated data from the East Coast of America, including GPS and satellite measurements. The data shows that large parts of the coastal region are slowly yet steadily sinking into the 3) ___ Ocean.
There are primarily two reasons for this phenomenon, explains Makan A. Karegar from the University of South Florida, currently a guest researcher at the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Bonn. During the last ice age around 20,000 years ago, large parts of Canada were covered by an 4) ___ sheet. This tremendous mass pressed down on the continent. Some areas of Earth's mantle were thus pressed sideways under the ice, causing the coastal regions that were free of ice to be raised. When the ice sheet then melted, this process was reversed, explains Karegar. The East Coast has thus been sinking back down for the last few thousand years. This geological effect explains the submerging of the coastal regions, but only in part. In the last decade, the area between 32 and 38 degrees latitude has been sinking more quickly than in the previous millennia -- in some cases, by more than three millimeters a year. The melting of the ice 5) ___ is responsible for a maximum of a third of this. The authors assume that it is caused by the significant use of groundwater in the corresponding region. 6) ___ allows the land mass to swell up to some degree -- similar to carbon dioxide bubbles in cake mix. When groundwater is removed, the land mass can be compressed more greatly, said Karegar. It practically collapses into itself and thus sinks even more. Depending on the distance from the sea, the creation of reservoirs can also contribute to the sinking or even the raising of the coastal region, said Prof. J?rgen Kusche from the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation. This effect was taken into account with the help of satellite 7) ___.
Many cities on the East Coast of America were founded at the end of the 16th or start of the 17th centuries. The researchers have calculated that these cities lie at least 45 centimeters lower today than back then, solely due to the glacier effect. In recent years, they have even been sinking much more rapidly in some places due to the removal of groundwater. A further factor is the rising sea level due to climate change, an effect that now also totals more than three millimeters per year and is responsible for another 15 centimeters of submerged 8) ___. This increase is set to gain much more momentum in the 9) ___. Even if the removal of groundwater is reduced, the number of floods will thus continue to increase, predicts Karegar. The sums of money that need to be spent to rectify the damage associated with this will also increase significantly. One should, therefore, assume that the USA has a vested interest in combatting climate 10) ___ with all its resources.
Source: University of Bonn; Makan A. Karegar, Timothy H. Dixon, Rocco Malservisi, J?rgen Kusche, Simon E. Engelhart. Nuisance Flooding and Relative Sea-Level Rise: The Importance of Present-Day Land Motion. Scientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11544-y
ANSWERS: 1) flooding; 2) tide; 3) Atlantic; 4) ice; 5) sheet; 6) Water; 7) measurement; 8) land; 9) future; 10) change